Project Development and Design Manual (PDDM)

Project Development and Design Manual (PDDM)

The PDDM has been developed to provide current policies and guidance for the interdisciplinary project development and design related activities performed by Federal Lands Highway (FLH) Divisions and their Consultants. It also serves as a guide for administrators, public officials and others, both within and outside FLH, who are responsible for advancing projects through the project development process.


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Acrobat Icon Cover  (Acrobat, 604 KB)

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Acrobat Icon Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION  (Acrobat, 727 KB)  New

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Acrobat Icon Chapter 2: PLANNING AND PROGRAMMING  (Acrobat, 257 KB)

  • Section 2.1 - General
  • Section 2.2 - Guidance and References
  • Section 2.3 - Programs
    • 2.3.1 - Federal Lands Highway Program (FLHP)
    • 2.3.2 - Other Federal Agency Transportation Systems
    • 2.3.3 - Emergency Relief for Federally Owned roads (ERFO) Program
  • Section 2.4 - Planning and Program Coordination
    • 2.4.1 - Interagency Agreements
    • 2.4.2 - Federal/State Forest Highway Tri-Agency Agreements
    • 2.4.3 - Federal/County Forest Highway Interagency Agreements
    • 2.4.4 - Forest Highway Project Agreements
    • 2.4.5 - Miscellaneous Interagency Agreements
  • Section 2.5 - Planning Studies and Reports
    • 2.5.1 - Park Roads and Parkways (PRP) Studies
    • 2.5.2 - Forest Highway (FH) Studies
    • 2.5.3 - IRR Studies
    • 2.5.4 - Refuge Road Studies
    • 2.5.5 - Other Studies
  • Section 2.6 - Project Identification
    • 2.6.1 - Project Numbering System
    • 2.6.2 - Accounting Procedures
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Acrobat Icon Chapter 3: ENVIRONMENTAL STEWARDSHIP  (Acrobat, 1.41 MB)  New

  • CFLHD Supplements
  • WFLHD Supplements
  • Section 3.1 - Introduction
    • 3.1.1 - Purpose
    • 3.1.2 - Applicability to Federal Lands Highway Projects
    • 3.1.3 - Organization
    • 3.1.4 - Revisions
  • Section 3.2 - Responsibilities by Program
    • 3.2.1 - General Environmental Compliance Responsibilities
    • 3.2.2 - Program-Specific Environmental Compliance Responsibilities
    • 3.2.3 - Other Agreements and Programs
  • Section 3.3 - Laws, Regulations, Policies, Guidance and Permits
    • 3.3.1 - National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 USC 4321; PL 91 90)
    • 3.3.2 - Resource-Specific Environmental Considerations
    • 3.3.3 - Commonly Required Permits
  • Section 3.4 - Environmental Process
    • 3.4.1 - Role of Environmental Streamlining in the Environmental Process
    • 3.4.2 - Federal Lands Highway Environmental Process
  • Section 3.5 - NEPA Documentation
    • 3.5.1 - NEPA Class of Action
    • 3.5.2 - NEPA Document Contents
    • 3.5.3 - Internal Document Approvals
  • Section 3.6 - Tracking and Reporting
    • 3.6.1 - Environmental Document Tracking System
    • 3.6.2 - Wetland Impact and Mitigation Reporting
    • 3.6.3 - Endangered Species Act Compliance Costs
    • 3.6.4 - Section 4(f) De Minimis Findings
    • 3.6.5 - Environmental Commitments
    • 3.6.6 - Other Tracking
  • Appendix 3A.1 - Laws, Regulations, Policies, Guidance and Permits
    • 3A.1.1 - Resource-Specific Environmental Considerations
  • Appendix 3A.2 - NEPA Documentation
    • 3A.2.1 - Categorical Exclusion
    • 3A.2.2 - Environmental Assessment
    • 3A.2.3 - Finding of No Significant Impact
    • 3A.2.4 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement
    • 3A.2.5 - Reevaluations
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Acrobat Icon Chapter 4: CONCEPTUAL STUDIES AND PRELIMINARY DESIGN  (Acrobat, 875 KB)  New

  • CFLHD Supplements
  • WFLHD Supplements
  • Section 4.1 - General
  • Section 4.2 - Guidance and References
  • Section 4.3 - Problem Definition
    • 4.3.1 - Identify Purpose and Need
    • 4.3.2 - Gathering Existing Information
    • 4.3.3 - Site Inspection
  • Section 4.4 - Design Standards
    • 4.4.1 - Applicable Design Standards
    • 4.4.2 - Resurfacing, Restoration and Rehabilitation (RRR) Projects
    • 4.4.3 - Geometric Design Criteria
    • 4.4.4 - Design Controls
    • 4.4.5 - Flexibility in Highway Design
    • 4.4.6 - Risk Assessment
  • Section 4.5 - Preliminary Engineering Investigation
    • 4.5.1 - Project Scoping Study
    • 4.5.2 - Project Scoping Report
    • 4.5.3 - Corridor Study
  • Section 4.6 - Developing the Evaluation Framework
    • 4.6.1 - Context Sensitive Solutions Approach
    • 4.6.2 - Interagency Scoping and Stakeholder/Public Involvement
    • 4.6.3 - Developing a Proposed Course of Action
    • 4.6.4 - Project Agreement
  • Section 4.7 - Alternatives Development and Evaluation
    • 4.7.1 - Types of Alternatives
    • 4.7.2 - Development of Preliminary Engineering Concepts
    • 4.7.3 - Description of the Alternatives
    • 4.7.4 - Alternative Benefits and Consequences
    • 4.7.5 - Alternative Evaluation and Recommendations
  • Section 4.8 - Design Features of the Proposed Improvements
  • Section 4.9 - Implementation
    • 4.9.1 - Preliminary Design Review
    • 4.9.2 - Program Requirements
    • 4.9.3 - Stage Construction
  • Section 4.1 - Documentation
    • 4.10.1 - Preliminary Engineering Study Report
    • 4.10.2 - Environmental Document
    • 4.10.3 - Development Required for Final Plans, Specifications, and Estimate (PS&E)
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Acrobat Icon Chapter 5: SURVEYING AND MAPPING  (Acrobat, 830 KB)  New

  • Section 5.1 - General
    • 5.1.1 - Surveying and Mapping Functions and Programs
    • 5.1.2 - Authority and Administration
    • 5.1.3 - Safety
  • Section 5.2 - Guidance and References
  • Section 5.3 - Survey Planning
  • Section 5.4 - Field Data Collection and Processing
    • 5.4.1 - Control Surveys
    • 5.4.2 - Topographic Surveys - Aerial
    • 5.4.3 - Photogrammetry
    • 5.4.4 - Topographic Surveys - Terrestrial
    • 5.4.5 - Right-of-Way and Cadastral Surveys
  • Section 5.5 - Final Design Surveys
    • 5.5.1 - Reference Hub Staking
    • 5.5.2 - Pavement and Bridge Grid Grades
  • Section 5.6 - Records and Reports
    • 5.6.1 - Purpose
    • 5.6.2 - Metadata Standards
    • 5.6.3 - Elements of Survey Field Notes
  • Appendix 5A.1 - Code of Safe Surveying Practice
  • Appendix 5A.2 - Standards For Control Survey Accuracy Classification
  • Appendix 5A.3 - Specifications For Control Surveys
    • 5A.3.1 - Physical Standards for Control Monuments
    • 5A.3.2 - GPS Control Points Established by any Method (Static or RTK)
    • 5A.3.3 - Terrestrial Traverse for Primary Control (3000 Series)
    • 5A.3.4 - Terrestrial Traverse for Secondary Mapping Control (4000 Series)
    • 5A.3.5 - Terrestrial Traverse for Wing Points
    • 5A.3.6 - Terrestrial Levels
    • 5A.3.7 - Cadastral or Right-of-Way Ties
    • 5A.3.8 - Notes on Specifications
  • Appendix 5A.4 - Guidelines For Planning Aerial Photogrammetry
    • 5A.4.1 - Relationships
    • 5A.4.2 - Guidelines for Aerial Photographic Products
  • Appendix 5A.5 - Guidelines For Analytical Aerial Triangulation
    • 5A.5.1 - Second Order Optical Train Stereo Plotter
    • 5A.5.2 - Softcopy Aerotriangulation Considerations
    • 5A.5.3 - Mensuration
  • Appendix 5A.6 - Guidelines For Ground Topography and Planimetry
  • Appendix 5A.7 - Sample Metadata For Horizontal and Vertical Control Project
    • 5A.7.1 - Summary of Metadata
    • 5A.7.2 - Identification_Information
    • 5A.7.3 - Data_Quality_Information
    • 5A.7.4 - Spatial_Data_Organization_Information
    • 5A.7.5 - Spatial_Reference_Information
    • 5A.7.6 - Entity_and_Attribute_Information
    • 5A.7.7 - Distribution_Information
    • 5A.7.8 - Metadata_Reference_Information
Geotechnical TGM
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Acrobat Icon Chapter 6: GEOTECHNICAL  (Acrobat, 729 KB)  New

  • Section 6.1 - General
    • 6.1.1 - Geotechnical Discipline
    • 6.1.2 - Geotechnical Role in Project Development
    • 6.1.3 - Intended Chapter Use
  • Section 6.2 - Guidance and References
    • 6.2.1 - Policies for FLH Geotechnical Discipline
    • 6.2.2 - Risk Management
    • 6.2.3 - Standards and Standard Practice
    • 6.2.4 - Technical Guidance
    • 6.2.5 - Technical References
    • 6.2.6 - State DOT References
  • Section 6.3 - Geotechnical Investigations
    • 6.3.1 - Planning and Management
    • 6.3.2 - Methods and Practice
  • Section 6.4 - Analysis and Design
    • 6.4.1 - Evaluation of Data, Project Requirements, and Design Parameters
    • 6.4.2 - Scope of Analysis
    • 6.4.3 - Structure Foundations
    • 6.4.4 - Earth Retention Systems
    • 6.4.5 - Other Structures
    • 6.4.6 - Earthwork
    • 6.4.7 - Slope Stability
    • 6.4.8 - Rock Engineering
    • 6.4.9 - Drainage, Dewatering, and Erosion Control
    • 6.4.10 - Ground Improvement
    • 6.4.11 - Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering
  • Section 6.5 - Documentation and Support
    • 6.5.1 - Geotechnical Reports and Documents
    • 6.5.2 - Final Design and Review of Plans and Specifications
    • 6.5.3 - Construction Support
    • 6.5.4 - Post-Construction Monitoring and Emergency Response
  • Section 6.6 - Primary and Secondary Sources
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Acrobat Icon Chapter 7: HYDROLOGY AND HYDRAULICS  (Acrobat, 952 KB)  New

  • WFLHD Supplements
  • Section 7.1 - General
    • 7.1.1 - Quick Reference Guide
    • 7.1.2 - Project Management and Coordination
    • 7.1.3 - Reconnaissance and Scoping
    • 7.1.4 - Risk Considerations
    • 7.1.5 - Baseline vs. Proposed Conditions
    • 7.1.6 - Design Standards and Criteria
    • 7.1.7 - Capacity vs. Stability Design
    • 7.1.8 - Design and Check Floods
    • 7.1.9 - Design Exceptions/Variances
    • 7.1.10 - Quality Control and Quality Assurance
    • 7.1.11 - Documentation and Deliverables
    • 7.1.12 - Applicable Laws
  • Section 7.2 - Hydrology
    • 7.2.1 - References
    • 7.2.2 - Design Standards
    • 7.2.3 - Design Guidance
    • 7.2.4 - Recommended Methods for Estimating Peak Flow
    • 7.2.5 - Recommended Methods for Computing Hydrographs
    • 7.2.6 - Reporting
  • Section 7.3 - Roadway Hydraulics
  • Section 7.4 - River Hydraulics
    • 7.4.1 - Floodplain Encroachments
    • 7.4.2 - Scour and Stream Stability
    • 7.4.3 - Bridged Waterways
    • 7.4.4 - Longitudinal Embankments
    • 7.4.5 - Retaining Walls
    • 7.4.6 - Low-Water Crossings
    • 7.4.7 - Channel Changes
    • 7.4.8 - Scour and Stream Instability Countermeasures
    • 7.4.9 - Energy Dissipators
  • Section 7.5 - Environmental Hydraulics
    • 7.5.1 - Aquatic Organism Passage
    • 7.5.2 - Stream Restoration and Rehabilitation
    • 7.5.3 - Wetlands
    • 7.5.4 - Stormwater Management
  • Section 7.6 - Coastal Hydraulics
    • 7.6.1 - General
    • 7.6.2 - Hydrology
    • 7.6.3 - Floodplain Encroachments
    • 7.6.4 - Scour and Stream Stability
    • 7.6.5 - Bridged Waterways
    • 7.6.6 - Roadway Embankments
    • 7.6.7 - Scour and Stream Instability Countermeasures
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Acrobat Icon Chapter 8: SAFETY AND TRAFFIC DESIGN  (Acrobat, 558 KB)

  • CFLHD Supplements
  • Section 8.1 - General
    • 8.1.1 - Safety Philosophy
    • 8.1.2 - Safety Design Policy
    • 8.1.3 - Roadway Safety
    • 8.1.4 - Roadside Safety
  • Section 8.2 - Guidance and References
  • Section 8.3 - Investigation Process
    • 8.3.1 - Crash Data
    • 8.3.2 - Traffic Safety Studies
  • Section 8.4 - Safety Analysis
    • 8.4.1 - Crash Analysis
    • 8.4.2 - Existing Site Conditions Analysis
    • 8.4.3 - Existing Geometric Controlling Features Analysis
    • 8.4.4 - Evaluation of Pedestrian/Multi-Modal Facilities
    • 8.4.5 - Safety Evaluation Computer Programs
    • 8.4.6 - Road Safety Audits
    • 8.4.7 - Safety Evaluation Report
  • Section 8.5 - Safety Design
    • 8.5.1 - Design Exceptions
    • 8.5.2 - Defining the Clear Zone
    • 8.5.3 - Traffic Barriers
    • 8.5.4 - Crash Cushions and End Treatments
    • 8.5.5 - Traffic Calming
    • 8.5.6 - Evaluation of the Design for Weather Conditions
  • Section 8.6 - Traffic Analysis
  • Section 8.7 - Traffic Design
    • 8.7.1 - Signing and Delineation
    • 8.7.2 - Traffic Signals
    • 8.7.3 - Illumination
    • 8.7.4 - Highway-Rail Grade Crossings
    • 8.7.5 - Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS)
  • Section 8.8 - Temporary Traffic Control (TTC)
    • 8.8.1 - Temporary Traffic Control (TTC) Plan Development
    • 8.8.2 - Temporary Traffic Control (TTC) Pavement Markings
    • 8.8.3 - Temporary Traffic Control (TTC) Channelizing Devices
    • 8.8.4 - Temporary Traffic Control (TTC) Barriers/End Treatments
    • 8.8.5 - Traffic Delays
    • 8.8.6 - Emergency Response Considerations

Acrobat Icon Chapter 9: HIGHWAY DESIGN  (Acrobat, 1.67 MB)  New

  • CFLHD Supplements
  • WFLHD Supplements
  • Section 9.1 - General
    • 9.1.1 - Role of the Designer
    • 9.1.2 - Design Requirements and Standards
    • 9.1.3 - Exceptions to Design Standards
    • 9.1.4 - Variances to FLH Standard Practice and Guidance
    • 9.1.5 - Design Philosophy and Context Sensitive Solutions
  • Section 9.2 - Guidance and References
    • 9.2.1 - Standards of Practice
    • 9.2.2 - Guidance
    • 9.2.3 - Internal FLH Guidance
  • Section 9.3 - Geometric Design
    • 9.3.1 - Geometric Design Controls
    • 9.3.2 - Aesthetic Considerations
    • 9.3.3 - Horizontal and Vertical Alignment Relationships
    • 9.3.4 - Combinations of Design Elements and Features
    • 9.3.5 - Horizontal Alignment
    • 9.3.6 - Vertical Alignment
    • 9.3.7 - Sight Distance
    • 9.3.8 - Geometric Cross Section
    • 9.3.9 - Roadway Widening
    • 9.3.10 - Medians
    • 9.3.11 - Curbs
    • 9.3.12 - Roadside Design Considerations
    • 9.3.13 - Foreslopes
    • 9.3.14 - Design of Intersections
    • 9.3.15 - Railroad-Highway Grade Crossings
    • 9.3.16 - Pedestrian Considerations and Facilities
    • 9.3.17 - Bicycle Considerations and Facilities
    • 9.3.18 - Transit Considerations and Facilities
    • 9.3.19 - Parking Lot Layout Considerations
  • Section 9.4 - Resurfacing, Restoration and Rehabilitation (RRR) Design
    • 9.4.1 - Application of Design Standards
    • 9.4.2 - Improvement of Safety Performance
    • 9.4.3 - Evaluation of Existing Geometric Design
    • 9.4.4 - Improvement of Roadside Conditions
    • 9.4.5 - Improvement of Traffic Operations
    • 9.4.6 - Evaluation of Pavement and Drainage Structures
    • 9.4.7 - Mitigation of Substandard Design Features
  • Section 9.5 - Other Highway Design Elements
    • 9.5.1 - Earthwork Design
    • 9.5.2 - Slope Treatments
    • 9.5.3 - Earth Retaining Structures
    • 9.5.4 - Landscaping and Restoration of Vegetation
    • 9.5.5 - Drainage Design
    • 9.5.6 - Soil Erosion and Sediment Control
    • 9.5.7 - Parking and Rest Areas
    • 9.5.8 - Roadway Appurtenances
    • 9.5.9 - Right-of-Way and Utility Considerations
    • 9.5.10 - Environmental Protection and Enhancements
    • 9.5.11 - Construction Considerations
  • Section 9.6 - Plans Specifications and Estimate (PS&E) Development
    • 9.6.1 - PS&E Package
    • 9.6.2 - Alternative PS&E Development and Contracting Options
    • 9.6.3 - PS&E Development at Various Stages of Design
    • 9.6.4 - Reviews
    • 9.6.5 - Plans
    • 9.6.6 - Supporting Information
    • 9.6.7 - Construction Schedule and Contract Time
    • 9.6.8 - Engineer's Estimate
    • 9.6.9 - Specifications
    • 9.6.10 - Contract Assembly
    • 9.6.11 - Quality Control and Quality Assurance
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Acrobat Icon Chapter 10: STRUCTURAL DESIGN  (Acrobat, 462 KB)

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Acrobat Icon Chapter 11: PAVEMENTS  (Acrobat, 437 KB)

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Acrobat Icon Chapter 12: RIGHT OF WAY AND UTILITIES  (Acrobat, 672 KB)  New

  • WFLHD Supplements
  • Section 12.1 - General
    • 12.1.1 - Real Property under Federal, State and Tribal Law
    • 12.1.2 - Right of Way and Utilities Process Overview
  • Section 12.2 - Guidance and References
  • Section 12.3 - Right of Way Coordination
    • 12.3.1 - Internal Coordination
    • 12.3.2 - External Coordination
    • 12.3.3 - Environmental Considerations
    • 12.3.4 - Right-of-way Services
    • 12.3.5 - Establishing Proposed Right-of-Way Limits
    • 12.3.6 - Right-of-Way Plans
    • 12.3.7 - Plans for National Forest Lands and Federal Agencies
  • Section 12.4 - Utilities
    • 12.4.1 - Regulations and Guidance
    • 12.4.2 - Accommodation of Utilities
    • 12.4.3 - Utility Coordination
    • 12.4.4 - Utility Agreements and Responsibility for Utility Relocation
    • 12.4.5 - Location of Utilities
    • 12.4.6 - Retention of Existing Facilities
    • 12.4.7 - Aesthetic Controls
    • 12.4.8 - Utility Installations on Highway Structures
    • 12.4.9 - Overhead Power and Communication Lines
    • 12.4.10 - Underground Electric Power and Communication Lines
    • 12.4.11 - Irrigation and Drainage Pipes, Ditches and Canals
  • Section 12.5 - Railroads
    • 12.5.1 - Regulations and Guidance
    • 12.5.2 - Railroad Agreements
  • Section 12.6 - Federal Lands
    • 12.6.1 - Regulations and Guidance
    • 12.6.2 - Federal Land Transfer Coordination
    • 12.6.3 - Transfer Procedures of Other Agencies
    • 12.6.4 - Forms of Transfer
    • 12.6.5 - Conditions of Transfer
    • 12.6.6 - Special Use Permits
  • Section 12.7 - Tribal Trust Lands
    • 12.7.1 - Regulations and Guidance
    • 12.7.2 - Tribal Sovereignty and Consultation
    • 12.7.3 - Application Procedures
  • Section 12.8 - Private Land Acquisition
    • 12.8.1 - Overview Of The Private Land Acquisition Process
    • 12.8.2 - Guidance and Reference Material
    • 12.8.3 - Stewardship and Quality Control
    • 12.8.4 - Acquisition Process
    • 12.8.5 - Relocation Issues
    • 12.8.6 - State Owned Lands
  • Section 12.9 - Right of Way and Utility Records
    • 12.9.1 - Right of Way Certification
    • 12.9.2 - Right-of-Way Acquisition Records
    • 12.9.3 - Acquisition Statistics
    • 12.9.4 - Recording Right-of-Way Project Records
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Acrobat Icon Chapter 13: DESIGN FEEDBACK  (Acrobat, 178 KB)

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